Pheromone traps utilize insect hormones to simulate the type of scent produced by the female insect to seduce or lure their male counterparts. Males lured into traps are prevented from mating.
Pheromone traps are used for trapping to reduce the immediate pest population and also for monitoring purposes.
These traps assist the grower in determining the mating activity of the insect pest by counting insects trapped over a period of time. This information will enable a sound decision to be made regarding the timing for the release of beneficial insects and the use of organic repellents and insecticides to knock down large pest populations.
Our pheromone trap kits are ready-for-use and include everything required for setting the trap. Extra lures, baits, and sticky bottoms are also available to enhance duration of trap usage or for use in subsequent pest outbreaks.
List of Pheromone Lures
Agrotis ipsilon (Black cutworm)
(Black cutworm) – The greasy cutworm, black cutworm is a small noctuid occurring worldwide. The origin of black cutworm is uncertain, though it is now found in many regions of the world, being absent principally from some tropical regions and cold areas. It is more widespread, and damaging, in the northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere. It annually reinvades temperate areas, overwintering in warmer or subtropical regions. Duration of the life cycle is normally 35 to 60 days. The adult is fairly large in size, with a wingspan of 40 to 55 mm. The adult preoviposition period is about seven to 10 days. Moths select low-growing broadleaf plants preferentially for oviposition. The eggs normally are deposited in clusters on foliage. Females may deposit 1200 to 1900 eggs. Duration of the egg stage is three to six days.
Black cutworm has a wide host range. Nearly all vegetables can be consumed, and this species also feeds on alfalfa, clover, cotton, rice, sorghum, strawberry, sugarbeet, tobacco, Corn and sometimes grains and grasses. In the midwestern. The preference by black cutworm for weeds is sometimes quite pronounced, and crops will be attacked only after the weeds are consumed. Adults feed on nectar from flowers.
This species occurs frequently in many crops, and is one of the best-known cutworms. Despite the frequency of occurrence, however, it tends not to appear in great abundance, as is known in some other cutworms and armyworms. Black cutworm is not considered to be a climbing cutworm, most of the feeding occurring at soil level. However, larvae will feed aboveground until about the fourth instar. Larvae can consume over 400 sq cm of foliage during their development, but over 80% occurs during the terminal instar, and about 10% in the instar immediately preceding the last. Thus, little foliage loss occurs during the early stages of development. Once the fourth instar is attained, larvae can do considerable damage by severing young plants, and a larva may cut several plants in a single night. Plants tend to outgrow their susceptibility to injury. Corn at the one-leaf stage is very susceptible to damage, but that by the 4 or 5-leaf stage plant yield was not reduced by larval feeding. Leaf feeding and cutting above the soil line are less damaging to corn than cutting at the soil surface. Subterranean damage is very injurious.
Aproaerema modicella (Groundnut leaf miner)
(Groundnut leaf miner)-is a pest of groundnut and soybean where yield losses of up to 30-50% are reported in groundnut. Eggs are laid singly on the underside of the leaves of groundnut, soybean and other leguminous plants.
Young larvae mine the leave and later instars exit the mine to web together several leaflets. In general larvae of Aproaerema modicella pass through five instars with the duration of larval development lasting between 9 to 28 days. Pupation occurs in webbed leaflets and is completed in 3 to 10 days. The number of generations per crop is highly variable and may vary from 2 to 7 generations depending on crop, season and climate. The pest is very sporadic with wide population fluctuations between generations and seasons. Temperatures in range of 25-30°C are very favorable for this pest.
Small blister like mines are seen on the upper leaf surface near mid rib. As the feeding advances, the mines increase in size and the entire leaf becomes brown, rolls, shrivels and dries up. In severe cases the affected crop presents a burnt up appearance.
Caloptilia theivora (Tea leaf roller)
(Tea leaf roller)– This pest gives a serious damage to the tea plant as rolling the young leaves.
Adult is a microlepidopteran with long antenna, golden iridescent patches in forewing and abdomen. The wingspan is 10–14 mm.
The tea leaf roller, Caloptilia theivor, belonging to the family Gracillariidae in the order Lepidoptera, is a serious pest of tea plants. The larvae feed on Tea leaves. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine is found on the underside of the leaf. They sneak the tender leaf or roll the young leaves into triquetrous insect buds for hiding themselves and feeding. The fecal particles accumulated in the insect buds, causing pollution to the leaves and influenceing the tea quality. Contamination of this rolled leaves deteriorates the qualities of manufactured tea. The decrease of production is caused by the fourth and fifth instar in the leaf rolling stage.
The larva mines the tender leaf and reaches leaf margin during the first two instars, the mine beginning as a gallery and widening into a blotch. In the third and later instars it rolls the end of the leaf downwards creating a cone, in which frass accumulates, two or three successive cones are formed, usually at the tip of a leaf; the downward curling of the leaf distinguishes this species from Tortiricid leaf-rollers.
Chilo infuscatellus (Sugarcane early shoot borer)
(Sugarcane early shoot borer)
This a main pest of Sugarcane. And can be found in all sugarcane growing areas of India.
This a main pest of Sugarcane, but also attacks maize, millet, sorghum, rice, barley, oats, jowar, and many species of wild grasses.
Damage occurs mainly in summer months during March to July and more prominent in drought situations.
a. Dead heart in 1-3 months old crop, which can be easily pulled out.
b. Rotten portion of the straw coloured dead heart emits an offensive odour.
c. Bore holes at the base just above the ground level.
d. yield loss: 22-33% sugar recovery : 2%
Chilo partellus (Maize spotted stalk borer)
(Spotted stalk borer)–is a moth in the family Crambidae. It is one of the most economically damaging pests, attacking all parts of the plant except the roots. Infestations can be detected by walking through crops looking for the characteristic physical appearance of a deteriorated host plant by the presence of deadhearts. Samples of infested stems can be cut open to find caterpillars and pupae.
Egg: The eggs are laid on the underside of a leaf near the midrib in 3-5 rows, in groups of 50-100. They are flattened, ovoid and about 0.8 mm long. Hatching takes place after 7-10 days.
Larva: They are creamy pink with groups of dark spots along the back.The head capsule is brown. When mature they are about 25 mm long. The larval period takes 28-35 days.
Pupa: Pupation takes place in a small chamber in the stem. The pupal period takes 7 10 days.
Adult: Adult moths have a wingspan of 20-30 mm. Males are smaller and darker than females. The forewings of males are pale brown. The forewings of the females are much paler and the hind wings are almost white.
Sorghum, Maize, Bulrush millet, Sugarcane, Rice.
Chilo partellus attacks several grass species which can be both cultivated and wild. Cultivated crop hosts include but are not limited to maize, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, and sugarcane. The first symptom of damage is the presence of irregular shaped pinholes or shot holes caused by early-instar larval feeding in the whorl. This can later convert to elongated lesions on the leaves. The infested plants appear ragged and deteriorated. The older larvae leave the whorl, break through and bore into the stem and reach the growing point. It is there that the larvae cut and cause the characteristic deadheart symptom. The damage due to the pest includes leaf feeding and subsequent destruction, extensive tunnels in stems and maize cobs, disruption in the nutrient flow, and the resultant death of the plant due to the puncture of the growing point.
Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Sugarcane internodeborer)
(Sugarcane internode borer)– In India it is considered to be a major pest of Sugarcane. The pest appears late in the growing phase of the crop and is active in the post-monsoon and harvest periods. The larvae infest the soft internodes, 80% of attack is being noticed generally on the first five internodes. The attack is severe on autumnplanted crop than spring-planted crop. Attacked canes lose weight considerably and juice quality also deteriorates. About 20 to 50% canes are infested. Low temperature and high humidity are favorable for the multiplication of the insect.
Distribution : Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharsahtra, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Harayana.
Egg: Scale – like white eggs are laid by female moths in batches of 9-11, near the midribs,
on leaf sheaths or on stem.
Larva: White larva with four violet longitudinal stripes and light brown head.
Pupa: Pupation takes place in semi – dried sheath. Pupal period 7-10 days.
Adult: Straw coloured with a dark spot on each of the fore wings.
Sorghum, Maize, Bulrush millet, Sugarcane, Rice.
The eggs are laid in batches on the sheathing leaves and 9-11 white, scale like eggs in two rows are seen in each batch.. The larvae that hatch out from the eggs in about three days ore near the nodes and feed on the inner contents making the tissue turn red. The bore hole is plugged with excreta and the larvae migrate and attack a number of nodes. Number of bored internodes in a cane range from seven to 14.The larva is white with dark spots on the body and a brown head. In about a month the larvae becomes fully grown and pupates in the leaf sheath. The adult is pale brown with white hind wings, and emerges in a week. The life cycle completes in six weeks. Yield loss: 34.88%, sugar recovery: 1.7 to 3.07%
Chilo suppressalis ( Asiatic rice borer)
(Asiatic rice borer / Striped Rice Borer) is a moth of the family Crambidae. It is a widespread species, known from India, Sri Lanka, China, eastern Asia, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia to the Pacific. It is a serious pest of rice. They are largely responsible for the great reduction in the rice growing.
Egg: are creamy white, flattened, oval and scale like and laid in mass and covered with buff coloured hairs.
Larva: pale yellow with dark brown head.
Pupa: White silken cocoon are found inside the stem.
Adult: Female moth: bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot possess a tuft of yellow hairs Male moth: Smaller with pale yellow forewings without black spot.
Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip.2. Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller, causes drying of the central shoot known as “dead heart”. 3.Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried “white ear”. 4. Plants could be easily pulled by hand.
Larvae tunnel into the growing stems killing the plant or severely reducing grain production. Both the attack symptoms and the damage caused by the Chilo Suppressalis are different depending on the development stage of the rice plant. Frequently, the attacked plants are arranged in circles or little groups. This is due to the fact that usually, the larvae do not move very far from the plant.
During the earing period, the plant is attacked by larvae from 2nd and 3rd generation. The signs of the striped rice borer attack at this stage are plants with more vertical spikes than the rest due to the relatively little weight of the rice grains. This attack may also affect the cane itself because sometimes it is not solid enough to hold the plant’s weight and it lies down.
Conogethes punctiferalis (Yellow peach moth)
(Yellow peach moth) – is a serious pest on castor, guava, pomegranate, pear, turmeric, ginger, mango.
Eggs: Eggs are “round and light yellow in color, and 0.63 × 0.41 mm in size. After incubation of 6–7 days, the eggs turn dark brown with a dark head”.
Larvae: The larva of the moth has a black head and a pale greenish body with a pinkish suffusion dorsally.
Coloration can vary by type of food. Fully grown larvae are 16 to 26 mm and are rather stout, pale or reddish-brown with numerous flattened horny warts that have short bristly hairs. The prothoracic shield is large and the head is reddish-brown.
Pupae: “The pupa measures 15 mm long and is brown in color. The pupa is enclosed by a white silken cocoon.
Adults: Adults are pale straw yellow with numerous small black spots and a wing span of 18 to 24 mm.
Sorghum, castor, guava, pomegranate, pear, turmeric, ginger, mango, cardamom, teak, cocoa etc.,
The larva of this species is the damaging stage, and it bores into stems, shoots, buds, fruits, and seeds of many plants. Caterpillar bores into young fruits Feeds on internal contents (pulp and seeds) Dry up and fall off in without ripening. This pest is Serious on castor, Larvae bore into shoots and capsules. Affected shoots show bore holes covered with frass and capsules are webbed together with dark excreta and other matter. Sorghum: Larval feeding results in extensive webbing of grains and broken grains. In Guava and pomegranate, Larvae sometimes bore into the fruits.
In Maize, It damages the silk, grain and cob, and sometimes tunnels bored into the stalk. Cotton: Larvae bore into cotton bolls and sometimes the stems. Ginger: Larvae begin feeding on the green contents of the leaves and later bore into the shoots, feeding on the inner core.
Crocidolomia binotalis (Cabbage head caterpillar)
(Leaf webber) – Distributed throughout India. Is a serious pest of Cabbage, radish, mustard, turnip and other crucifers.
Female moth lays eggs on the lower surface of the leaves. The eggs are laid in masses of 40-100. Larvae hatch out from the eggs in 5-15 days, depending upon the season. The larvae are gregarious in nature and feed on leave surface. Larval period lasts for 24-27 days in summer and 50-52 days in winter. The larva is green in colour when fully grown measures about 2cms in length. It pupates inside the soil by making an earthen cocoon around itself. It has also been found to pupate by making cocoon within the webbed up leaves and flowers of the host plant. The pupal period lasts for 14-40 days depending upon season. During summer the development occurs rapidly
Cabbage, radish, mustard, turnip and other crucifers.
Damage is caused mainly by the caterpillars. The caterpillars form silken web around the leaves. They feed upon the leaves making them completely skeletonized. They also feed on flower buds and bore into pods. They make the vegetable inconsumable by failing with excreta.
CUCURLURE for cucurbit crops
(Melon fruit fly) -This melon fly remains active throughout the year on one or the other host. During the severe winter months, they hide and huddle together under dried leaves of bushes and trees. During the hot and dry season, the flies take shelter under humid and shady places and feed on honeydew of aphids infesting the fruit trees. It is reported the survival of adults for a year at room temperature if fed on fruit juices. In general, its life cycle lasts from 21 to 179 days. There are 8 to 10 generations in a year. The egg incubation period has been reported to be 1.0 to 5.1 days depends on the cucurbits. The larval period lasts for 3 to 21 days, depending on temperature and the host. The full-grown larvae come out of the fruit by making one or two exit holes for pupation in the soil.
Melon fruit fly infests over 70 host plants, amongst which, fruits of Bitter gourd, Muskmelon, Snap melon and Snake gourd, pawpaw, Gherkin, are the most preferred hosts.
For cucurbits, the melon fruit fly damage is the major limiting factor in obtaining good quality fruits and high yield. It prefers young, green, and tender fruits for egg laying. The females lay the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit pulp, and the maggots feed inside the developing fruits. At times, the eggs are also laid in the corolla of the flower, and the maggots feed on the flowers. The fruits attacked in early stages fail to develop properly, and drop or rot on the plant.
The females prefer to lay the eggs in soft tender fruit tissues by piercing them with the ovipositor. A watery fluid oozes from the puncture, which becomes slightly concave with seepage of fluid, and transforms into a brown resinous deposit. The eggs are laid into unopened flowers, and the larvae successfully develop in the taproots, stems, and leaf stalks. After egg hatching, the maggots bore into the pulp tissue and make the feeding galleries. The fruit subsequently rots or becomes distorted. Young larvae leave the necrotic region and move to healthy tissue, where they often introduce various pathogens and hasten fruit decomposition. The extent of losses varies between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season.
Diaphania indica (cucurbit fruit borer)
(Cucumber moth) – This Moth also known as pumpkin caterpillar/cotton caterpillar,
and is one of the major pests all over the world.
Egg : Eggs lay singly or in groups on lower surface of leaves.
Larva : Bright green with a pair of white mid dorsal lines.
Pupa : Pupation takes place inside a cocoon among the leaves.
Adult : Whitish wings with broad and dark marginal patches.
Female with tuft of orange coloured hairs at anal end.
Gherkin, Wax gourd, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, beans, snake gourd, little gourd, Indian mustard, pigeon pea, watermelon, melon, small melon, cucumber, pumpkin, ornamental gourd, cucurbits, short staple cotton, cowpea…etc.,
1. Young larva scrapes the cholorophyll content.
2. Later on it folds and webs the leaves and feeds within.
3. It also feeds on flowers and bores into developing fruits.
Eggs of Diaphania indica are laid singly or in clusters on the lower surface of leaves. On hatching, the larvae feed on the lower surface of leaves which are lacerated and bound together by threads of silk. In severe outbreaks, most of the foliage is destroyed and larvae burrow into the stems, feed on flowers, new tender shoots and young and developing as well as mature fruits in case of little and bitter gourd. The fruits are sometimes attacked particularly at the proximal end. Damage to the fruit is 60% in bitter gourd to 90% in little gourd.
Earias insulana (spotted bollworm)
(Spiny bollworm) –is known as Egyptian stemborer, Egyptian bollworm, spiny bollworm or cotton spotted bollworm, is a moth of the family Nolidae. It is the most important pest of Cotton and Okra.
Larva- Brown with dorsum showing a white median longitudinal streak. The last two thoracic segments and all the abdominal segments have two pairs of fleshy tubercles(finger shaped processes) one dorsal and the other lateral.
Pupa – Brown and boat shaped
Adult – Small buff coloured. Forewings are uniformly silvery green.
Full-grown larvae are 13–18 mm long and their wingspan is generally about 24–28 mm.
Pupation takes place in a felt-like cocoon, which is attached to dry leaves of the food plant or to plant debris on the ground. Typically, the pupal stage takes 9–15 days, but may extend to up to two months if development is delayed by low temperatures.
Adults show strong seasonal polymorphism, depending on the temperature. Two distinct forms are present in some areas: a bright green summer form and a brownish-yellow autumn form. The wingspan is 20–22 mm.
Cotton, Okra, Hibiscus, Rice, Sugarcane Corn and Indian mallow.
1. Drying and drooping of terminal shoots during pre-flowering stage.
2. Shedding of squares and young bolls.
3. Flaring up of bracts during square and young boll formation stage.
4. Holes on bolls and rotting of bolls.
The caterpillars of the pest not only bore the bolls but also attack the shoots, buds and flowers. The infested bolls open prematurely and produce poor lint resulting in lower market value.
Earias vitella (Spiny bollworm)
(spotted bollworm) –The spotted bollworm is the most important pest of Cotton and Okra. Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. In India it is more common in Punjab and Rajasthan.
Larva- Brownish with white streaks dorsally and pale yellow ventrally, Without finger shaped processes.
Adult- Small buff coloured. Forewings are pea green with a wedge shaped white band running from base to out margin.
Adult has yellowish fore wings with elongated green streak in the middle. Hind wing is pale whitish. Oviposition takes place in the night, female deposits 2-3 eggs on leaf bract, flower bud or tender leaf, usually on the under surface. Fecundity is 200-400 eggs per female. Eggs are deep sky blue or greenish crowned and sculpted on the surface.
Incubation period is 3-5 days. Full grown larva is about 2.0 cm long, brownish with white patches on the dorsal side of the body. There are 6 larval instars and the total larval development takes 12-18 days. Pupation takes place on the plant or rarely in the soil among fallen leaves. A boat-shaped greyish silken cocoon is constructed for pupa formation. Pupal period is 7-10 days.
Cotton, bhendi, Abutilon indicum, hibiscus, and several other hosts.
Symptoms of damage on cotton include withered terminal shoots due to tip boring by the larvae during pre-flowering stage; flaring of bracts during square and young boll formation stage; shedding of squares and young bolls with boreholes; rotten bolls with larvae and presence on inverted boat shaped cocoon, always outside the fruit on the stem or on the plant debris in the soil. Young larvae attack growing shoots leading to drooping and withering of the top shoot. In later stages buds, flowers and bolls are also damaged. Flower buds open up prematurely causing “flared squares”. In damaged bolls pulp is eaten up and lint is stained.
FRULURE for fruit crops
B.zonata, B.dorsalis, B. papayae, B. carambolae, B. invadens, B. correcta, B.tau etc.,
In general, the life cycle of Bactrocera species lasts from 21 to 179 days. There are 8 to 10 generations in a year. The egg incubation period has been reported to be 1.0 to 5.1 days depends on the cucurbits. The larval period lasts for 3 to 21 days, depending on temperature and the host. The full-grown larvae come out of the fruit by making one or two exit holes for pupation in the soil. Eggs are laid below the skin of the host fruit. These hatch within 1-3 days and the larvae feed for another 9-35 days. Pupation is in the soil under the host plant and adults emerge after 1-2 weeks and adults occur throughout the year. Oriental fruit flies are fast growing (the life cycle takes about 16 days in summer). females typically lay 1500 eggs in their lives, but can lay up to 3000.
Bactrocera dorsalis has a wide host range on over 150 fruit and vegetable crops like Cashew, Mango, Plum, Pear, Papaya, Almond, Avocado, Apple, Guava, Peach, Orange, Lemon, Grapefruit, Sweet orange, Kumquat, Custard apple, Pomegranate, Fig, Jujube, and Cucurbit crops like Watermelon, Pumpkin, Ivy gourd, Cucumber and Bottle Gourd and Solanaceae crops like Pepper, Tomato, Eggplant etc.,
Females lay eggs under ripe fruit’s skin (although they also will lay in green fruit) and larvae destroy the fruit by feeding on it as they develop. The females lay the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit pulp, and the maggots feed inside the developing fruits. At times, the eggs are also laid in the corolla of the flower, and the maggots feed on the flowers. The fruits attacked in early stages fail to develop properly, and drop or rot on the plant. Since, the maggots damage the fruits internally.
Larval feeding in fruits is the most damaging. Damage usually consists of breakdown of tissues and internal rotting associated with maggot infestation, but this varies with the type of fruit attacked. Infested young fruit becomes distorted, callused and usually drop; mature attacked fruits develop a water soaked appearance. The larval tunnels provide entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause the fruit to rot. When only a few larvae develop, damage consists of an unsightly appearance and reduced marketability because of the egg laying punctures or tissue break down due to the decay.
Helicoverpa armigera (Cotton bollworm)
(Cotton bollworm) -is a highly polyphagous species and one of the most serious pests of field and vegetable crops. This pest has been recorded feeding on 182 plant species across 47 families in the Indian subcontinent, of which 56 are heavily damaged and 126 are rarely affected.
The female cotton bollworm can lay several hundred eggs, Under favourable conditions, the eggs can hatch into larvae within 3 days and the whole lifecycle can be completed in just over a month.
The eggs are spherical and 0.4 to 0.6 mm in diameter, and have a ribbed surface. They are white, later becoming greenish.
The larvae take 13 to 22 days to develop, reaching up to 40 mm long in the sixth instar. Their colouring is variable, but mostly greenish and yellow to red-brown. The head is yellow with several spots. Three dark stripes extend along the dorsal side and one yellow light stripe is situated under the spiracles on the lateral side.
The pupae develop inside a silken cocoon over 10-15 days in soil at a depth of 4–10 centimetres, or in cotton bolls or maize ears.
The adult moth is stout, yellowish brown with a dark speck area on the forewings. Which have grayish wavy lines and a black kidney shaped mark whereas the hind wings are whitish with blackish patch along the outer margin.
The most important crop hosts are tomato, cotton, pigeon pea, chickpea, rice, sorghum, and cowpea. Other hosts include groundnut, okra, peas, field beans, soybeans, other Leguminosae, tobacco, potatoes, maize, flax, and a number of fruit trees and a range of vegetable crops.
1. Bolls showing regular, circular bore holes. 2. Larvae seen feeding on the boll by thrusting their heads alone inside and leaving the rest of the body outside. 3. Presence of granular faecal pellets outside the bore hole. 4. A single larva can damage 30-40 bolls.
Helopeltis theivora (Tea Mosquito bug)
(Tea mosquito bug) – This is the most important among the tea pests in India and widely distributed in Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and North-Eastern part.
The adult is small bug measuring 6-8 mm in length. The body is slender and elongated with yellowish-brown or olive green head, dark red thorax and black and white abdomen and greenish brown wings. Appendages are long, dark and delicate. Bugs are active in the early morning and late evening hours and hide in the bushes during the remaining period.
Mating occurs soon after the emergence of adults. Female start laying eggs within two days later copulation- A female is capable of laying about 500 eggs. The eggs are trust by the female into the surface tissues of the host plants. The eggs are elongated and sausage shaped. Each egg bears two C filamentous processes which project out from the tissues in which the eggs have been inserted Hatching occurs within 5 to 7 days in summer and 20 to 27 days in winter. The larval periods lasts for 9-10 days in summer and 25-29 days in winter. Life cycle is completed in about 15 20 day in summer and 45-60 days. There may be several generations in a year.
Cashew, neem, moringa and guava are other host plants.
The adult and nymphal stage of Tea mosquito bug causes damage of serious nature to the tea plantation. The nymph and adult inserts their needle like stylets into the younge leaves, buds and tender shoots to suck the plant sap. These punctures appear as reddish brown water soaked spots. The toxin injected through saliva of the pest causes the tissues around the punctured snot to dry and die. The affected portion becomes brown and later on becomes black. The leaves having many such black spots shrivel and eventually fall off. The infected shoot also show such spots winch extends to almost whole plant. The bushes severely affected by this pest look as if they have been torched by fire. Due to intensive feeding, leaves curl up, become badly deformed and remain small. Gradually, shoots dry up.
Keiferia lycopersicella (Tomato pinworm)
(Tomato Pinworm) – The tomato pinworm is a small, micro lepidopteran moth that is often confused with closely related species, which have similar habits.
Eggs are laid singly or grouped in twos and threes on the host-plant foliage. The eggs are opaque to pale yellow when laid, but turn orange before hatching. The first instar larvae spin a tent of silk over themselves and tunnel into the leaf. Further feeding results in a blotch-like mine usually on the same leaf. The third and fourth larval stages feed from within tied leaves, folded portions of a leaf, or enter stems or fruits. Mature larvae abandon the host and form a loose pupal cell of sand grains near the soil surface. The adult emerges from this pupal cell two to four weeks later. Although the life cycle is lengthy, generations overlap and infestations quickly mount to damaging proportions. Seven or eight generations or more per year can be expected.
Plants of the nightshade family, (Solanaceae), are the preferred hosts of pinworms. Tomato, is infested most commonly, but eggplant, and potatoes, also are attacked.
Symptoms: The larva causes mines on the leaves, visible mainly on the upper surface. These mines widen during the second larval instar forming a translucent blotch. As the larva matures the leaf is distorted and spun together, flowers are also affected in this way. In fruits the larval entry hole can be detected, and galleries can be seen just beneath the surface; rot may also occur.
Several sanitary measures should be followed because infestations often result from shipment of pinworms in picking containers, crates, infested fruit or seedlings, and from populations perpetuated on plants left in fields after harvest or left in seed flats or compost heaps. The precautions include use of transplants that are free of eggs and larvae when set in the field, and the destruction of all plant debris in fields after harvest
Leucinodes orbonalis (Brinjal fruit and shoot borer)
(fruit and shoot borer) –It is an important and major pest of Brinjal. Farmers in some areas of Northern India and Bangladesh are finding that even daily applications do not provide effective control. The female moth lays eggs individually on the shoots of young brinjal plants. The small larvae that emerge soon eat their way into the tender growing shoots where they are protected from larval parasitoids and natural enemies such as ants and beetles. The feeding activity of the larvae causes the young shoots to droop in a characteristic manner. As the brinjal plant develops and begins to produce fruit the female moth preferentially lays eggs on the fruit into which emerging larvae burrow. Several larvae can be present in one fruit at a time, depending of the fruit’s size. As the larvae burrow into the fruit they block the hole with excrement or frass so preventing predators entering attacking them.
Host plants :
Brinjal and Potato crops.
Brinjal, Potato Mass trapping for control of brinjal borer. The lure is highly attractive to male moths and specific to the target species. The purpose of this activity is to reduce the chances of female moths finding a mate so that she is unable to produce viable offspring. Female Leucinodes orbonalis only mate once and from other research we know that even delayed mating can significantly reduce the number of viable eggs female moths can produce (fecundity).
Crop hygiene :
Crop hygiene is particularly important in areas of intensive cultivation, and in particular where related crops are cultivated over long periods of time. Infested shoots and fruits should be removed by hand from brinjal fields. Both can act as sources of future infestation. Similarly, at the end of a woody crop residues are often collected and stored for use as firewood. However, these residues contain larvae which emerge the following spring and lay eggs in newly established nurseries. Ideally crop residues should be shredded or burnt before the next crop is planted in the same way that fields are ploughed to reduce populations of soil borne pests and diseases.
Mythimna loreyi (False armyworm)
(False Armyworm) – also known as Loreyi leafworm, rice armyworm is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae. The Caterpillars are not easily seen on infested crops. Leaves are eaten and the droppings of the caterpillars are conspicuous. During the day they are either found hidden in the heart of the plant or in the soil or trash at the base.
Life cycle :
The adults are nocturnal, producing moe than 1000 eggs/female that are placed on host leaf sheaths and stems.
The larvae are grey–brown with 2 dark and 2 pale longitudinal stripes, about 35 mm long.
The adults are about 15-20 mm in length, forewings pale-brown, with a small dark spot in the middle, hindwings whitish, with pale-brown veins. The legs are also brown. The adults live for 2-3 weeks and raise several annual generations.
Host plants :
Maize(corn) Rice, Wheat, Barley and sorghum.
The Caterpillars feed on the leaves, leaving only the midrib uneaten. Caterpillars bore into ‘heart’ of wheat and barley and also attack the developing flower spikes.
Mythimna separata (Rice ear cutting caterpillar)
(Armyworm / Ear cutting caterpillar) –It is a sporadic pest, during years of heavy rainfall. The larvae are gregarious in habit and are commonly known as armyworm.
Life cycle :
The eggs of this species are off-white. They are laid in groups low on the leaves of a food plant, often between in the sheaths or on the blades. The mother moth uses a sticky secretion to hold the group in place. The young Caterpillars are green. Later instars are brownish with a thin pale dorsal line, and with dark lateral lines on each side. The head has a light and dark brown pattern. Solitary individuals remain fairly pale in colour, but when Caterpillars become crowded, for example when feeding communally, they develop a much darker shade. The pupa is brown, and formed under surface litter in the soil. The adult moth has brown forewings with dark specks. The hind wings are pale brown.
Host plants :
Host range includes Sorghum, Maize, Khabbal grass, Gram, Rice, and Sugarcane. Mythimna separata is one of the most serious pests of cereals in Asia. It has been attacking plants of 33 species in 8 families resulting in heavy crop losses.
The Caterpillars feed on the leaves, leaving only the midrib uneaten.
Factors favouring insect damage:
1. Presence of many alternate hosts
2. Periods of drought followed by heavy rains
3. Dryland and wetland fields
Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink bollworm)
(Pink boll worm) – is a major pest of cotton. Adults are small, grayish brown, inconspicuous moths. When their wings are folded, they have an elongated slender appearance. The wing tips are conspicuously fringed. Young larvae are tiny, white caterpillars with dark brown heads. When mature, they are about 0.5 inch (12 mm) long and have wide transverse pink bands on the back. Eggs are very small, slightly elongated, and laid under the calyx of green bolls.
Identification of the pest:
Larva : Shows colour variation. Young larva are white and late instar becomes almost black, brown or green to pale or pink Several dark and light alternating bands running the entire length.
Adult Small moth : Forewings are brown or dull yellow olive grey with dark spots Hind wings margins are deeply fringed
Host plants :
Symptoms of damage : 1. Rosetted flowers. 2. Excreta observed at the point of bore holes by larval feeding. When bolls are opened, damaged seed kernel would be observed. 3. They cut window holes (interlocular burrowing) in the two adjoining seeds thereby forming “double seeds”. 4. The attacked buds and immature bolls drop off. 5. Discolored lint and burrowed seeds.
Pink bollworms damage squares and bolls, the damage to bolls being the most serious. Larvae burrow into bolls, through the lint, to feed on seeds. As the larva burrows within a boll, lint is cut and stained, resulting in severe quality loss. Under dry conditions, yield and quality losses are directly related to the percentage of bolls infested and the numbers of larvae/boll. With high humidity, it only takes one or two larvae to destroy an entire boll because damaged bolls are vulnerable to infection by boll rot fungi.
Phthorimaea operculella (Potato tuber moth)
(Potato tuber moth) –is a moth of the family Gelechiidae and is especially known for being a major pest of potato crops.
Life cycle :
Egg : Adult female can lay over 200 eggs over their lifespan, depending on environmental conditions. The eggs are typically oval in shape, smooth, and have a pearly white to yellowish color. The eggs usually take around five days to hatch.The eggs can be laid on the soil next to a preferred host plant, but they are typically laid next to a vein on the leaf, between the bud and the stem, or underneath the stem.
Larvae : Potato tuber moth larvae are typically 12-15mm long and are white or yellow with a brown head and prothorax. As the larvae matures, its color changes from white/yellow to pink/green. The thorax contains small black spots as well as bristles on each segment.
Pupae : The pupae are narrow in width and typically 0.5 inches in length. They are usually white in color and will take 10–30 days to develop, depending on environmental conditions.
Adult : Adult potato tuber moths are nocturnal and typically are not active until 1–2 hours after sunset. They are capable of flying for over 5 hours and 10 kilometers non-stop. Potato tuber moth commonly live for 1–2 weeks. Mating begins around 24 hours after emergence and most eggs are laid within the first quarter of the female’s life. Peak oviposition for females occurs 2–5 days after emergence and declines to much lower levels by day 7.
Host plants :
Potato, Tomato and Tobacco.
The larvae of the potato tuber moths can be very damaging to potato crops as well as tobacco and tomato plants. The larvae will eat away at the foliage and then proceed to eat away at the tubers as well, preventing the plant from growing. Larva tunnels into foliage, stem and tubers Galleries are formed near tuber eyes
Plutella xylostella (Diamond back moth)
(Diamond Back moth) –sometimes called the cabbage moth, is a moth species of the family Plutellidae and genus Plutella.It is a most destructive cosmopolitan pest, damaging severely cruciferous crops and distributed widely in South-East Asia. The small, grayish-brown moth sometimes has a cream-colored band that forms a diamond along its back. It’s believed that the species may have originated in Europe, South Africa, or the Mediterranean region, but it has now spread worldwide. The moth has a short life cycle (14 days at 25 °C), is highly fecund, and is capable of migrating long distances. Diamondback moths are considered pests as they feed on the leaves of cruciferous crops and plants that produce glucosinolates. However, not all of these plants are equally useful as hosts to the moth.
Identification of pest :
Egg: Minute yellow coloured eggs laid singly or in groups on the upper surface of leaves.
Larva: Pale yellowish green caterpillar.
Pupa: Pupation takes place on the foliage in a transparent cocoon.
Adult: Small greyish brown moth. Forewings have three white triangular spots along the inner-margin. Adult folds the wings that appear with triangular markings, opposite wing with diamond shape.
Host plants :
Cultivated crops that include Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Weed hosts such as mustard and radish.
The first instar sometimes feeds in the spongy plant tissue beneath the leaf surface forming shallow mines that appear as numerous white marks. These mines are usually not longer than the length of the body. The larvae are surface feeders in all subsequent stages. These larvae feed on the lower leaf surface 62-78% of the time, chewing irregular patches in the leaves. All the leaf tissues are consumed except the veins. On some leaves, the larvae feed on all but the upper epidermis creating a “windowing” effect. The last stage larva is a voracious feeder; it causes more injury than the first three larval instars.
Prayas citri (Citrus flower moth)
(Citrus flower moth) –the citrus blossom moth or citrus young fruit borer, is a moth of the family Plutellidae. The wingspan is 10–12 mm.
Life Cycle :
After emerging, the Moth feeds on sugary substances. It flies at dusk and during the day, resting in host trees. Mating occurs shortly after emergence. A few hours later, the female lays 1 to 3 eggs on a flower bud then moves to another. Total observed fertility: 60 to 150 eggs.
Egg : Oval, slightly convex, 0.15 x 0.20 mm, opalescent with a finely reticulated chorion.
Larva : Very pale and very small on hatching; 6.5 mm long and 1.8 mm wide when fully grown. Body pale, brownish or whitish with darker head and thoracic plate.
Pupa : In a very loose cocoon, white and frayed.
Adult : Wingspan 10 to 12 mm, dull grey colour. Antennae fairly short. Wings heavily fringed. The fore wings are a grainy grey-brown, darker on the lower edge and at the apex; the hind wings are very narrow, uniform grey-brown and smoky at the tips
Host plants :
All Citrus with a preference for lemon, Citrus decumana and to a lesser extent, orange.
The flower buds attacked by larvae dry up and die. The attacked young fruits, devoured from the inside and soiled by frass, are aborted. More mature fruit is deformed and remains small.
The young caterpillar enters the flower bud and devours the folded flower parts, then exits by a round lateral hole and enters another bud which it precedes to empty in the same fashion. It spins silken threads which cover the attacked inflorescences. After the first stage of fruit formation, it attacks the young fruit, penetrating it laterally via the receptacle. Depending on the season, it also attacks tender young shoots and leaves which it joins together to form a web. It also penetrates developed fruits by boring a gallery in the skin.
Scirpophaga excerptalis (White sugarcane top borer)
(Top borer or sugar cane top borer or top shoot borer) – is considered to be a major pest of sugarcane in many parts of India. Reductions in yield and sugar contents of up to 51% and 2.0 units, respectively, were recorded in Indian cane fields. Sugarcane infestation by Scirpophaga excerptalis results weight loss, decreased cane length. And also reductions in cane stalk length.
Life Cycle :
Egg : Eggs are laid on the lower surface of top leaves in clusters particularly near midribs. The clusters are covered with buff coloured hairs.
Larva : Smooth, white or cream coloured with a red coloured mid – dorsal line and yellow head.
Pupa : Pupation takes place within the larval tunnel in a chamber with an exit hole constructed by the caterpillar.
Adult : White Coloured moth (with a buff orange coloured anal tuft of hairs in female)
Host plants :
Mainly a pest of Sugarcane. Other hosts include: Mango, Sorghum and Wheat.
Early indications of the presence of Scirpophaga excerptalis on sugarcane include the presence of egg clusters on the upper side of the leaves near the growing point. The egg clusters are usually 13 mm long and covered by brownish-yellow hairs from the anal tuft of the female adult moth. First-instar larvae eat through the rolled leaves which subsequently unfurl, producing a characteristic, repetitive pattern of small holes. The larvae usually penetrate along the midrib of the leaf into the heart of the plant. They tunnel in the midrib for 24-48 hours and emerge through the upper epidermis. Two or three first and/or second-instar larvae, and on rare occasions third-instar larvae, can be found in the spindle of the stems. The top shoot becomes withered and stunted, whereas the internodes beneath may produce new leaves. Damage is generally most severe in young plants that thrive in a humid environment.
Scirpophaga incertulas (Rice yellow stem borer)
(Rice yellow stem borer) –Important pest of Rice Rice stem borers are common insect pests in many rice growing countries. Stem borers were found in almost all rice ecosystems for year long. Stem borer larva damages rice stem and disturbs nutrient translocation from root to leaf. As the result, tillers in vegetative stage died, which is called dead heart. When larva infests generative stage, it causes empty panicle, which is called whitehead.
Life history :
The wingspan of the male is 18–22 mm and the female is 34 mm. Adult males are smaller than the females. Males are brownish ochreous. Forewings irrorated (sprinkled) with dark scales and with the veins slightly streaked with fuscous. A black spot found at lower angle of cell. There is an oblique fuscous line runs from apex to vein. A marginal black specks series can be seen. Hindwings ochreous white. Female fuscous brown with pale fuscous hindwings.
Eggs are creamy white, flattened, oval and scale like and laid in mass and covered with buff coloured hairs.
Full-grown larvae are pale yellow to yellowish green with a brown head and reach a length of 20 mm.
Pupation takes place in a white silk cocoon.
Host plants :
Mainly a pest of Paddy.
Its incidence is most predominant in tropical lowland rice and deep-water rice. The pest attacks all stages of the crop. Early instars bore into the leaf sheath and causing longitudinal yellowish-white patches as a result of feeding. Then it invades the stem of the rice plant and stays in the pith to feed on the inner surface of the stem wall. These are not externally visual as symptoms. Severe feeding causes a deep circular cut through the parenchyma tissue showing ‘dead heart’ symptom (drying up of central shoot) and damage during the panicle initiation stage results in ‘white ear’(chaffy, unfilled grains).
Scirpophaga innotata (rice white stem borer)
(Paddy White Stem Borer) -The White Stem Borer (Walker) is a very important pest of rice. The moth resembles on forewing. The upper side of forewing is pale ochreous or white in both sexes, without any markings; Labial palpi is about twice the diameter of eye. Hind wings are with the frenulum spine double in female. Anal tufts whitish in female. Hind wings are white in colour. The larva is also white in colour. Scirpophaga innotata is a monophagous pest.
Life cycle :
Eggs are laid in clusters of 70-260, usually on the underside of young leaves and covered with a tuft of hairs from the female’s abdominal tip. Incubation period is 4-9 days.
The Caterpillars are a dirty white color. The young larva penetrates the leaf sheath and goes down into the stem. It is milky white and grows to a length of 25mm. The larval period varies from 19- 31 days.
Pupae are soft bodied, pale and whiter than YSB pupae. Pupal period is completed in 7-11 days.
Host plants :
Mainly a pest of Paddy.
Newly hatched larvae bore inside the young rice plant, travelling downward between the leaf sheaths and causing death of the young tip (dead hearts) in the vegetative stage, and empty panicles (white heads) in the generative stage. First-instar larvae may use silken threads to move to other plants.
Scirpophaga nivella (White rice borer)
(white rice borer) –also known as the paddy stem borer is a moth in the family Crambidae. Scirpophaga nivella has been reported as rice pest from Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Punjab.
Life cycle :
Adult moths are creamy white in colour with crimson coloured anal tuft of hairs in females. Males are slightly smaller, with a wing span of 25-30 mm. Fecundity is 150-300 eggs per female. Eggs are dull white, oval, laid in overlapping clusters of about 30 eggs on the under surface of the leaf and covered with buff coloured hairs derived from the anal tuft of female. Incubation period is 5-7 days.
After hatching the larvae bore into the midrib and tunnel towards the stem for 24-48 hours and then enter the stem. Full grown larva is 25-30 mm long dull creamy white having shorter legs. Larval period is 25-40 days.
Pupation takes place inside the stem in a chamber constructed by the larva just above the node. Pupal period is 10-20 days depending on temperature. Hibernation takes place in the larval stage.
Host plants :
Rice, and species in the sedge family, Cyperaceae.
The larvae do the damage, similar to other rice borer species. Rice plants can compensate for any damage caused by stem borers up to the stage of maximum tillering; however, infestation during panicle initiation and flowering causes loss in yield. Young larvae bore into the midrib, leaving red markings and small holes on the leaves. Then the larvae tunnel in the upper portion of the stem, resulting in drying of the central shoot, causing “dead heart”. With the death of central shoot, side branches start growing from a lower node, giving a characteristic “bunchy top” appearance to the plant. Older larvae tunnel to the growing point and into the internodes. A brown line and yellowy marks form on the underside of leaves even well after the moth has emerged. The tunnelling ends above the ground and runs almost to the epidermis where pupation occurs.Up to 25% mortality of shoots and 40% stunting has been recorded in northern India.
Sesamia inferens (Maize pink stem borer)
(Pink stem borer) – A serious pest more severe in Maize, other hosts include Ragi, Sorghum, Bajra, Wheat, Paddy and Sugarcane.
Life cycle :
The Life cycle is completed in 6-7 weeks with 4-5 generations in a year. Round pearl like yellowish eggs ranging 80-300 are laid in 2-3 longitudinal rows usually with in the sheaths of bottom leaves of young maize plant of two to three weeks old. As the time for hatching approaches, eggs become brown or shy grey.
Full grown larvae are stout smooth about 25 to 30 mm in length purplish pink on the dorsal side and white on ventral side. Newly hatched larvae remain in group behind the leaf sheath and begin chewing on the stem and epidermal layer of the sheath. Some migrate to neighboring leaf sheaths, while others penetrate the stem.
Moth is medium sized stoutly built having straw colored forewings with a mid longitudinal dark brown broad triangular streak. Hind wings are white.
Host plants :
Maize, Ragi, Sorghum, Bajra, Wheat, Paddy and Sugarcane.
Whorl feeding of larvae results in rows of oblong holes in unfolding leaves unlike round shot holes produced by Chilo partellus. Later they bore in to central shoot resulting in the drying up of the growing point and formation of dead heart in young maize plant as a result of larval feeding some times the bottom internodes show circular ring like cuts.
Severe damage causes the stem to break. Severely infected plants due to stunting may appear to have some times the cob and tassel at one place.
Spodoptera exigua (Beet armyworm)
(Beet armyworm) – a serious pest on a wide host range vegetable, field and flower crops. The beet armyworm is a general feeder and attacks the foliage, stems of field and vegetable crops. It is a significant pest for vegetable growers because of its wide host range and resistance to most insecticides. The beet armyworm is a light-green to black larva with four pairs of abdominal prolegs and a dark head. There are many fine, white wavy lines along the back and a broader stripe along each side. There is usually a distinctive dark spot on each side just above the second pair of true legs.
Life cycle :
Female moths lay masses of up to 80 eggs underneath a covering of cottony-white scales, as many as 600 eggs over a 3 to 7-day period. These eggs hatch in 2 to 3 days and the larvae first feed together in a group near the egg cluster. As they grow, they gradually move away from the egg masses. Many small larvae die during this wandering stage but the behavior tends to spread out the infestation. Beet armyworm is quite mobile; one larva may attack several plants in a row. Older larvae may feed on fruit as well as leaves. After they complete their feeding, the 1-1/4 inch larvae pupate in the soil in a loose cocoon containing soil particles and leaf fragments. The life cycle takes about a month to complete in warm weather.
Host plants :
Vegetable crops include Asparagus, Bean, Ladies finger, Beet, Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celery, Chickpea, Corn, Cowpea, Brinjal, Lettuce, Onion, Pea, Pepper, Potato, Radish, Spinach, Sweet potato, Tomato, and Turnip. Field crops damaged include Alfalfa, Cotton, Peanut, Sunflower, Sorghum, Soybean, Sugar beet, and Tobacco.
The first two instar larvae are gregarious and feed in groups on foliage, typically damaging young terminal growth. The clumped skeletonizing of foliage is known as a beet armyworm ‘hit’ in many crops. Profuse silk webbing may give infested plants a shiny appearance. Later instars feed on foliage and other plant parts; no webbing is produced. Third and later instar larvae disperse and may continue feeding on foliage but will readily bore into fruit.
Spodoptera frugiperda (Fall armyworm)
(Fall armyworm) – is a lepidopteran pest that feeds in large numbers on the leaves and stems of more than 80 plant species, causing major damage to commercial crops such as cotton, maize, rice, sorghum, sugarcane and also other vegetable crops.
Life cycle :
Egg : Eggs are spherical (0.75 mm diameter); they are green at the time of oviposition and become light brown prior to eclosion. Egg maturity takes 2-3 days (20-30°C). Eggs are usually laid in masses of approximately 150-200 eggs. Up to 1000 eggs may be laid by each female.
Larvae : Larvae are a light green to dark brown with longitudinal stripes. In the sixth instar, larvae are 3-4 cm long. Larvae have eight prolegs and a pair of prolegs on the last adbominal segment. On hatching they are green with black lines and spots, and as they grow they either remain green or become buff-brown and have black dorsal and spiracular lines. If crowded (by a high population density and food shortage) the final instar can be almost black in its armyworm phase. Large larvae are characterized by an inverted Y-shape in yellow on the head, black dorsal pinaculae with long primary setae (two each side of each segment within the pale dorsal zone) and four black spots arranged in a square on the last abdominal segment. There are usually six larval instars, occasionally five.
Host plants :
Maize, Sorghum, Sugarcane, Soybean, Rice, Millets and Cotton.
Larvae cause damage by consuming foliage. Young larvae initially consume leaf tissue from one side, leaving the opposite epidermal layer intact. By the second or third instar, larvae begin to make holes in leaves, and eat from the edge of the leaves inward. Larval densities are usually reduced to one to two per plant when larvae feed in close proximity to one another, due to cannibalistic behavior. Older larvae cause extensive defoliation, often leaving only the ribs and stalks of corn plants, or a ragged, torn appearance. Presence of larvae during the late whorl stage could reduce yield by 5 to 20 percent.
Spodoptera litura (Oriental leaf worm)
otherwise known as cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton leaf worm, tobacco cutworm, tobacco caterpillar, and tropical armyworm. Spodoptera litura is a nocturnal moth in the family Noctuidae. It is one of the most serious polyphagous pest of field and vegetable crops throughout the world and in Indian subcontinent.
Life cycle :
Moth has grey to reddish-brown forewings with a complex pattern of creamy streaks and paler lines along the veins. The hind wings are grayish white with grey margins. Larvae are variable in colour starting pale green and turliturang dark green to brown. Larvae have bright yellow stripes along the back and sides.
The female lays eggs in masses and covers them with hair scales from her body. The egg masses are 4-7 mm in diameter and cream to golden brown. Eggs usually hatch between three to four days. Young larvae or caterpillars are a translucent green with a dark thorax. They are smooth-skinned with a pattern of red, yellow, and green lines, and with a dark patch on the back of the head. Feeding is ilituratially by skeletoliturazing, or leaving the outline of the leave veins on the plant. As growth continues, caterpillars eat entire leaves, and even flowers and fruits. The Caterpillar burrows into the soil several centimeters and there pupates without a cocoon. The pupal stage lasts either a few weeks or several months, depending upon time of year. The average life cycle will be completed in about 25 days.
Host plants :
It is a serious pest of Cotton, Chillies, Tomato, Beans, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Red gram, Black gram, green gram, Pea, Tobacco, groundnut, Caster, Sunflower, mungbean, olituraon, Sorghum, Soybean and other crops.
The species parasitize the plants through the larvae vigorous eating patterns, often times leaving the leaves completely destroyed. The moth’s effects are quite disastrous, destroying economically important agricultural crops and decreasing yield in some plants completely.
Trichoplusia ni (The cabbage looper)
(The cabbage looper) – is found throughout the world where crucifers are cultivated. They are identified by their looping behavior, in which they arch their body in a loop when they crawl.
Life cycle :
From egg to adulthood, the cabbage looper’s life cycle is generally 24–33 days long.
Egg : Eggs are generally yellow-white in color, dome-shaped, and patterned with ridges. They are 0.6mm in diameter and 0.4mm in height, and they are usually laid singly on the underside of leaves. In one day, a female can lay 40-50 viable eggs. Viable eggs hatch after about three days.
Larva : larvae are green in color with a white stripe on the side. After hatching, they are white and hairy, but eventually turn green and lose the hair, leaving only a few bristles. Larvae are generally 3–4 cm long, and can have four to seven instars within 9–14 days.
Pupa : This stage can last 4–13 days, depending on the temperature. Male pupae are slightly larger than female.
Adult : The adult form is a moth with gray-brown front wings and light brown back wings. It is about 2.5 cm long and has a wingspan of 3.8 cm. Adults spend their days protected by their begin activity 30 minutes before sunset. Males can be distinguished from females by light brown hairs that lie flat against their abdomen.
Host plants :
The cabbage looper has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, radish. Other vegetable crops include celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato and watermelon. And field crops such as cotton and tobacco.
Cabbage loopers are leaf feeders, and in the first three instars they confine their feeding to the lower leaf surface, leaving the upper surface intact. The fourth and fifth instars chew large holes, and usually do not feed at the leaf margin. In the case of cabbage, however, they feed not only on the wrapper leaves, but also may bore into the developing head.
Tuta absoluta (Tomato leaf miner)
(Tomato leaf miner) – is an important pest of Tomato particularly in Mediterranean region. Recently invaded India and becoming one of most important pests of Tomato. Other host crops include potato and common beans. Sex pheromone trap can be used as an early detection tool. Mass trapping, lure and Kill application of pheromone has been found to be effective to control Tuta absoluta.
Life cycle :
Tomato leaf miner can breed 10-12 generations a year In favourable conditions. Life cycle completes within 24-38 days depending on temperature. Generally Female lives 10-15 days and Male lives 6-7 days.
Eggs are oval Cylindrical, usually are laid on underside of Leaves, Buds, stems and calyx of unripe fruits. Female lays 250-300 eggs.
Pupation takes place in soil or on plant parts such as leaves and stem.
Adult moths are silvery brown with mottled wings.
Host plants :
Tuta absoluta prefers to feed on tomato, though other solanaceous plants, including potato, have been recorded as hosts.
It is known to have many generations in a year and affects tomato in all growing stages.<
Larvae mine in the mesophyll of leaves and make irregular, papery mines. The larvae also mine apical buds and stems. In cases of heavy infestation, both green and red fruits are attacked and infested fruits show small holes on the surface and the larvae tunnel / mine below the surface. Caterpillars attack only green leaf. Mining damage causes death of leaves, malformation of stems, and damage to fruits which lead to fungal infections.
Plodia interpunctella (Indian meal moth)
(Indian meal moth) – Main pest of storage seeds, Maize, cereals, Spices, bird seed, rice, groundnuts and has presence all over the world. The Indian meal moth is a very common household and retail pest of stored food products, particularly cereal products.
Life cycle :
Females start laying eggs up to 400 eggs into or adjacent to food within 3 days of emergence, usually at night. Within a few hours of hatching, larvae (which are external feeders) begin to feed, trailing a silken thread. There are 5-7 larval instars. The last instar larvae may enter diapause In temperate or cooler areas and remain inactive for several months until conditions improve. Moth will emerge in Spring when temperature and day length have increased.
Adults do not feed and are generally short-lived – around 7 days. Optimum conditions for development are around 30-35oC and 70-80%RH but infestations may be sustained at temperatures as low as 15oC and relative humidity of 25%. The shortest incubation time for eggs is 4-5 days, but the time for full development depends on food source and other variables. The maximum rate of population increase is about 60 times per month. Larvae develop more easily on broken seeds rather than whole ones as the pericarp offers a barrier to attack by larvae.
Host plants :
Maize, cereals, Spices, bird seed, groundnuts and has presence all over the world.
Larva causes serious damage to ear and grain of maize; contaminates the grain with excreta, cast skins, webbings, dead individuals and cocoons; prefers to eat the germ portion and hence grains lose viability. Most of the damage to stored products occurs when the larvae spin massive amounts of silk that accumulate faecal pellets, cast skins, and egg shells in food products. Damage due to this contamination exceeds the amount of food eaten by the larvae It feeds superficially but may construct more than one silken tunnel. The presence of silken threads or clumps or food particles in a processed cereal product such as white rice or rolled oats usually indicates a larval infestation of Plodia interpunctella. Plodia interpunctella is attracted to food sources by food odors.